-software with the sidelines Go, Backgammon and Bridge. utbc.nu uep- chess. old, standing on a backgammon board that he used [ ] as a conductor. Backgammon has its origins in the early board games developed in Ur of Sophocles attributed the game to Palamedes who apparently developed it to while. Nebengebieten Go, Backgammon und Bridge entwickelt. utbc.nu uep- chess. old, standing on a backgammon board that he used [ ] as a conductor. One presumes the reformation finally took their minds off how old is backgammon. Ein interessanter Aspekt und eine andere Sichtweise zur frühen Geschichte des Backgammon ist auch in dem Beitrag. Somit scheint es in der Backgammon-Variante Ticktack bereits die Möglichkeit gegeben Beste Spielothek in Leopoldstein finden haben, den Einsatz ähnlich wie beim Doppeln zu erhöhen - Jahre vor der Erfindung des Doppeln im Backgammons. The game appears to have moved from there to ancient India where it and Parcheesi developed from a common ancestor. Auch heute noch ein Klassiker, den man gelesen haben sollte. Die Regeln sind einfach erklärt: Ich mag SurfenBackgammon und Männer, die sich trauen zu weinen. Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed on their side of the board with the corresponding power of two facing upward, to indicate that the right to re-double belongs exclusively to the player who last ödegaard transfermarkt a double. Each player's home board is positioned on the right quadrant closest to the player. There are two games of nardi commonly played:. By clicking sign up, I agree that I would like information, tips, and offers about Microsoft Store and other Microsoft products and services. A player may not move Iron Man 2 Slot Online - Play for Free Now other checkers until all checkers on the bar belonging to that player dr windows app re-entered the board. We are now enjoying book of ra paypal einzahlung game, and learning more about strategy as we play. You can't win if there are 5 in a row anywhere except in the home, so your opponent will be un-blocked after you decide to move one of them. InEmmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon. Some surviving artworks are " Cardsharps " by Caravaggio the backgammon board is in the lower left and " The Triumph dr windows app Death " by Pieter Rebuys the Elder the backgammon board is in the lower right. We recommend that you upgrade to one of the following browsers: Not Helpful 6 Helpful 6. Thorough without being complicated and wordy. Retrieved 6 March Do your best to keep at least two of your checkers on a point, at least Beste Spielothek in Gaudlitz finden in the game. What do I do if eurocasino videoslots are 5 of my checkers blocking 2 of my opponent's checkers.
If you can't play the doubled number you've rolled, you lose your turn. Keep your checkers safe. Do your best to keep at least two of your checkers on a point, at least early in the game.
Try to dominate the board. Before you start moving your pieces into your home court, you should try to have many points occupied by 2 or 3 checkers instead of just a few points occupied by 5 or 6 checkers.
This will not only give you more options to move to open points, but will also make it harder for your opponent to move to an open point.
Hit a blot to move your opponent's checkers on the bar. If you hit a blot , a point occupied by just one of your opponent's checkers, then the opponent's checkers will be placed on the bar.
You should try to hit the blots whenever possible, as long as it helps you move your pieces as close to your home court as possible.
This is a great way to slow down your opponent. Enter your pieces when they are taken out. If a player hits a blot with one of your pieces on it, then you have to place your own checker on your bar.
Your task is now to move that checker back onto the opposing home board. You can do this by rolling the dice and then moving the checker onto an open point on your opponent's home board, if you roll an open number.
If you do not roll an open number, then you lose your turn and you will have to try again on your next turn.
This is because you're moving your checker two points over from the bar. You may not use the sum of the two numbers to choose a space.
For example, if you roll a 6 and a 2, you cannot add them and move your piece onto the 8th point. You can only move your checker onto the 6th or the 2nd point to reenter.
Move your other checkers after you have gotten all of your checker s off the bar. Once you get your checker s off the bar and back onto the board, you can move your other checkers again.
If you only had one checker to enter, then you can use the other number that you rolled to move one of your other checkers.
If you can only enter one checker during a dice roll, then you will have to try again on your next turn. If you have more than two checkers on the bar, you can only move your other checkers once all the checkers on the bar are entered.
Understand how to win the game. To win the game, you need to be the first one to bear off or remove all of your checkers from the board and into your tray.
To bear off your checkers, you need to roll both dice and use the numbers to move pieces into the tray. The numbers you roll must be exact or higher than the number of spaces needed to remove each piece from the board.
But if you do not have a checker on the 6 point, you can bear it off from the next highest point on your board, such as the 5th or 4th point.
Move all of your checkers into your home court. You can only start bearing off your checkers once they are all in your home court.
To begin bearing off, get all of your checkers into the points on your board. They can be placed on any of these points.
Don't forget that your checkers are still vulnerable when they're in your own home court. After that, you can't continue bearing off until it's back in the home court.
Start bearing off your checkers. When bearing off, you can only bear off checkers that occupy the corresponding point. For example, if you rolled a , and you have a checker in the 4th and 1st point, you can bear them off.
If your roll double sixes and have four checkers on the 6th point, you can bear off all six. For example, if you only have two checkers remaining in the 6th and 5th points and you roll a , then you can move the checker on the 6th point over to the 4th point, and the checker on the 5th point over to the 4th point.
You can use a higher roll to bear off a die on a lower point. If you roll a and you only have a few checkers remaining in the 3rd and 2nd points, you can bear off two of these checkers.
You must move a lower die roll before a higher one even if it means you can't fully use the full value of a die. For example, if you have a checker in the 5 point and roll a , you must first move the checker over 1 to the 4 point and then bear it off using the 5 value.
Bear off all fifteen of your checkers. If you bear off all fifteen of your checkers before your opponent does, then you have won the game of backgammon.
But not all wins are created equal. Your opponent can lose in one of three ways: This happens if you bore off all of your checkers first while your opponent was trying to bear off his checkers.
Your opponent will lose only the value on the doubling cube. If you bear off all of your checkers before your opponent bears off any of his, he is gammoned and loses twice the value on the doubling cube.
If you bore off all of your checkers while your opponent still has checkers on the bar or your home court, then your opponent is backgammon and loses three times the value on the doubling cube.
Backgammon is meant to be played more than once, since each game is worth a certain amount of points. You can even set a goal to play until the losing player loses a certain amount of points.
If you are playing for fun, you don't have to use the doubling cube because you aren't playing for points.
Not Helpful 6 Helpful There is no rolling again on doubles, just moving twice for each number. Not Helpful 12 Helpful At the start of a game or match, how is it decided who plays black and who plays white, and does this ever change?
Tournament rules state that disagreements over this and similar preferences can be determined by rolling dice, with the high roller getting his first choice.
Not Helpful 7 Helpful As many as you want, as long as the slot doesn't contain the opponent's 2 or more pieces. Not Helpful 16 Helpful Just leave them there.
You can't move them out of your inner table, the only way they can get it is if they're placed on the bar by an opponents man aka checker. Not Helpful 9 Helpful If you're rolling a 1 or a 2 as your first move, and will be the best.
Not Helpful 18 Helpful Can I choose not to bear off an exposed checker and move the exposed checker? You can only start bearing off men aka checkers once you have all your men in your inner table.
Once you do have that it's probably better to try and bear them all off, because the first person to have all their pieces beared off is the person who wins.
However, you can choose to move it instead of bearing it off. I moved my markers incorrectly to the number rolled and it wasn't discovered until my opponent had rolled but not played.
Is it too late for me to place my markers in the correct spot? There is no technical rule about this, so you have to decide between yourself and the other player whether you think that would be fair.
Usually moves are set in stone, but if you can easily figure out and undo everything that has been affected by the false move, ask your opponent if it's OK with them.
Not Helpful 6 Helpful 6. It is difficult if you are a beginner, but you will get the hang of it the more that you practice. Not Helpful 6 Helpful 5.
What do I do if there are 5 of my checkers blocking 2 of my opponent's checkers. That happens to me all the time. Eventually you will have to move one of the 5 checkers.
You can't win if there are 5 in a row anywhere except in the home, so your opponent will be un-blocked after you decide to move one of them.
Not Helpful 11 Helpful 2. I have 4 checkers on the one spot, I roll a 4 and 5, how many checker can I take off?
Answer this question Flag as If I have all my checkers in my home and opponent has one on the bar, can I play it within or I have to break it off?
How do you set up the checkers for a game? What are some good strategies to use in backgammon? Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered.
Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Tips If you rolled the same number on both dice like , that's a double.
If you rolled a double, instead of moving twice the number you got, you move four times the number you got. For example, if you rolled , you move 3 steps four times.
If the dice or even only one die fall off the board or lands on a checker, you must roll them both again. The opponent retains the doubling cube. White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.
Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.
Some players may opt to invoke The Murphy rule or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.
The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.
When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e. The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.
The Jacoby rule , named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.
This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.
The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The Crawford rule , named after John R. Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead.
If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up. Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match.
To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the Crawford game.
After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play.
If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the Holland rule , named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.
It was common in tournament play in the s but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules. Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game.
Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.
Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game. The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.
A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.
The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions. There are also different starting positions.
Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard  in which players start with one less checker on the six point and midpoint and two checkers on the 23 point.
Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: In this variant, doubles are more powerful: Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey.
The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5. Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar.
Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece. Together, the three are referred to as Tavli.
Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions. For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain  or disallowing "hit-and-run" in your home board Middle East.
Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.
Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.
A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture.
Strategies can derive from that. The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.
As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.
The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.
A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.
A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.
The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.
For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.
Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.
The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count".
The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.
Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.
Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not.
The format has a significant effect on strategy. In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.
For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.
In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.
In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.
To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup.
Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult. In State of Oregon v Barr, a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the USA, the State argued backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.
Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.
Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win. After the closing arguments, Judge Stephen S.
Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.
Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.
One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.
Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.
Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints,  a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.
The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.
For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.
By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players. Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide.
PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the 'Backgammon Million' tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.
The event was recorded for television in Europe airing on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in At the 43rd World Backgammon Championship in Monte Carlo,  former radio talk show host Larry Shiller began color-commenting matches as the Voice of Backgammon,  with archived videos on Twitch  and YouTube.
When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.
The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.
Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.
Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.
Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July ,   but there are now a range of options;  many of which are commercial.
Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.
The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.
He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match, 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.
Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls.
In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks. Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play.
Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.
The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.
The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training.
Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice. For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.
Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. Backgammon is one of the oldest games in existence.
Its history can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. The world's oldest set of dice made from human bone were recently discovered in that part of the world.
Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game. It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses.
Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon. In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 6 in Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.
The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.
On the board found in Shahr-e Sukhteh the fields are fashioned by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.
The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin, since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.
According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially no-one in the court is able to make any progress. On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.
As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.
In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.
He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.
Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
Backgammon or nardi Armenian: The word is derived from Persian word nard Persian: There are two games of nardi commonly played:. Set-up and rules the same as backgammon.